Methodology section on academic writing is important in order to explain how a research methodology which use in a research. This article is aimed to find out how to write methodology section in academic writing. The conclusion is drawn on the result of article showed that method in academic writing consist of research approach, setting and respondents, data collection, data analysis.
Keywords: methodology section, academic writing methodology.
Academic style is the style of writing by researcher and professionals in academic disciplines, e.g. education, engineering, science, architecture, philosophy, fine arts and law. Many of these disciplines have their own distinctive style. For example, the kind of writing you find in engineering or philosophy is very different from what you will find in fine arts or law. One distinguishing feature of all types of academic writing, however, is technicality, i.e. the use of terms with specific meanings in each subject.
Methodology section in academic writing has different type each others. There are no real guide to arrange methodology section. What kinds of methodology aspect should be explained. Whereas , a various aspect of methodology. Therefore, It need clear description guide how to write the methodology. The purpose of the methodology in academic writing is to give an experienced enough information a research which conducted (explain methodological Set-Up) started from research method, respondent of research consist of population and simple if required, how to collect data, data analysis, and result of research (Wilde, 2004). Through this academic writing about methodology section will be provide a guide to arrange methodology section and a number of important aspect may be attached.
Research methodology is a section to describe the process of a research as a foundation of academic writing. Therefore in the methodology section should consist of a number of aspect. It explain method in the research like research strategy, variable, participants, location, data, method (Lele, 2010). Beside, Browker (2007) named the structure of methodology section as, three sub-sections: participants, materials or apparatus, procedure.
Therefore, methodology section in academic writing must be consist of a number of component which is a clearly marked out structure. They are research approach (quantitative or qualitative), setting and respondent, data collection, and data (for quantities research).
1. Research Approach
What kinds of approach or research design in the study. A qualitative study does not have variables. It should explain research approach (qualitative or quantitative) and the reason why use one of those approach. It is in order to support why choose an approach as a basic of research. The research method and the significant of research, object, and data must be match. In the approach also explain how do exploration if in qualitative, and in a quantitative study, state about hypothesis and kinds of test. Then, the level of significance that will be used to accept or reject the hypotheses.
2. Setting and Participant
In this section, give enough details about the participants so that someone could repeat the study using people with the same characteristics. Hence, the researcher will need to mention the number of participants (population and sample), their gender, whether they are students, as well as how they were recruited. It’s also important to mention whether participants volunteered and whether they were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. In a quantitative study, describe the geographic location where the study will take place, cite recognizable landmarks such as a nearby urban city. Describe the participant pool. In a qualitative study, the decision regarding the number of participants in a study becomes a reflection the study’s purpose. Sample size is based on the total number of potential participants. The required sample size should be determined through a power analysis.
3. Data Collection
Research Stages and step also must be explained in the research like how in collecting data like observation, interview, and secondary data. It is not only the definition the about this stages, but also how the researcher conducted the collecting data process. Moreover, if it is secondary data, may explain the characteristic of data, source, and date. For instance, it may be appropriate to attach a copy of the survey in an Appendix at the end of the report, not in the body of the text and give general details in this section.
In a qualitative study, the instrument used to collect data may be created by the researcher or based on an existing instrument. If the instrument is researcher created, the process used to select the questions should be described and justified. If an existing instrument is used, the background of the instrument is described including who originated it and what measures were used to validate it. If a Likert scale is used, the scale should be described. If the study involves interviews, an interview should be developed that will result in a consistent process of data collection across all interviews. Most qualitative studies include both a demographic survey to develop a picture of the participants, and an interview.
4. Data Analysis
In both qualitative and quantitative studies, the precise method of how the data were processed and then analyzed is described. Increasingly, in qualitative studies, data collection and analysis is accomplished by using any one of several data collection and analysis tools like triangulation and other device which available on the Internet such as Survey Monkey. If the research is quantitative, usually involve explanation of variable, how use the variable, and analysis description like t-test and post-test.
This article is qualitative approach in order to build grounded theory how to create correct methodology in academic writing. The main participant of this article is the author. Thus, the author arrange the structure of methodology section and describe in the article. It is supported theoretical review to support author exploration. The data collection obtained from observation and documentation of a number of journal and article about academic writing guide. The author read and comply the a number theories then compare each other to determine methodology section guide. The data analysis was accomplished result of data collection then finally determine valid guide to write methodology.
Methodology section in academic writing have different version among researcher. Commonly this article conclude that there are a number of staged both quantitative and qualitative research. Therefore a methodology section guide in academic writing consist of research approach, setting and participant, data collection, and data analysis. Each methodology aspect must be explained more about why choose qualitative or quantities with relevant reason related purpose and data of research. Then, kinds of participant and research participation in the research and setting. The data collection also explain the process of collecting data. Kinds of data analysis follow the kids of research qualitative or quantities.
- Bowker, Natilene. (2007). Academic Writing: A Guide to Tertiary Level Writing. Palmerston North: Massey University.
- Lele, Phil. Gabriel. (2010). Panduan Penulisan Akademik. Yogyakarta: Fisipol UGM.
- Wilde, Jaap H. de. (2004). Centre for European Studies. Enschede: University of Twente.